Robert Vroman, BS NREMT-P

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Critical Thinking in EMS Education

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Below you will find the reference list used when developing the session. As mentioned during the session we only scratched the surface of critical thinking. I encourage you to review these sources as you develop your program.


Abel, W., & Freeze, M. (2006). Evaluation of concept mapping in an associate degree nursing program. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(9), 356-364.

Anuradha, G. (1995). Collaborative learning enhances critical thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7(1), 22-30.

Banning, M. (2006). Measures that can be used to instill critical thinking skills in nurse prescibers. Nurse Education in Practice, 6, 98-105.

Burch, T., Napier, R., & Altimier, L. (2009). Teaching novice neonatal intensive care unit nurses to think critically. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 9(2), 124-127.

Chenoweth, L. (1998). Facilitating the process of critical thinking for nurses. Nurse Education Today, 18, 281-292.

Croskerry, P. (2000). The cognitive imperative: Thinking about how we think. Academic Emergency Medicine, 7(11), 1223-1231.

Croskerry, P., Wears, R., & Binder, L. (2000). Setting the educational agenda and curriculum for error prevention in emergency medicine. Academic Emergency Medicine, 7(11), 1194-1200.

Croskerry, P., & Sinclair, D. (2001). Emergency medicine: A practice prone to error?. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 3(4), 271-276.

Croskerry, P. (2003). Cognitive forcing strategies in clinical decisionmaking. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 41(1), 110-120.

Dexter, P., Applegate, M., Backer, J., Claytor, K., Keefer, J., Norton, B., et al. (1997). A proposed framework for teaching and evaluating critical thinking in nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing, 13(3), 160-167.

Duron, R., Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 160-166.

Ellermann, C., Katoaka-Yahiro, M., & Wong, L. (2006). Logic models used to enhance critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(6), 220-227.

Gilboy, N., & Kane, D. (2004). Unfolding case based scenarios: A method of teaching and testing the critical thinking skills of newly licensed nurses. Nurse Educator, 30(1), 83-85.

Gul, R., & Boman, J. (2006). Concept mapping: A strategy for teaching and evaluation in nursing education. Nurse Education in Practice, 6, 199-206.
Harasym, P., Tsai, T., & Hemmati, P. (2008). Current trends in developing medical students critical thinking abilities. The Kachsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 7(24), 341-355.

Lochhead, J., & Clement, J. (1979). Cognitive Process Instruction. Philadelphia: The Franklin Institute Press.

Paul, R., Elder, L., & Bartell, T. (n.d.). Study of 38 Public Universities and 28 Private Universities To Determine Faculty Emphasis on Critical Thinking In Instruction . Foundation for Critical Thinking: Books, Conferences and Academic Resources for Educators and Students.. Retrieved April 19, 2010, from

Ravert, P. (2008). Patient simulator sessions and critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 47(12), 557-562.

Riddell, T. (2007). Critical assumptions: Thinking critically about critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(3), 121-126.

Schafersman, S. (1991, January 1). An Introduction to Critical Thinking. Free Inquiry Website of Steven Schafersman. Retrieved April 18, 2010, from

Simpson, E., & Courtney, M. (2002). Critical thinking in nursing education: Literature review. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 8, 89-98.

Staib, S. (2003). Teaching and measuring critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(11), 498-508.

Steadman, R., Coates, W., Huang, Y., Matevosian, R., Larmon, B., McCullough, L., et al. (2006). Simulation-based training is superior to problem-based learning for the acquisition of critical assessment and management skills. Critical Care Medicine, 34(1), 151-157.

Taylor, J., & Wros, P. (2007). Concept mapping: A nursing model for care planning. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(5), 211-216.

Vacek, J. (2009). Using a conceptual approach with a concept map of psychosis as an exemplar to promote critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(1), 49-53.

Wagner, D., Bear, M., & Sander, J. (2009). Turning simulation into reality: Increasing student competence and confidence. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(8), 465-467.

Walsh, C., & Seldomridge, L. (2006). Critical thinking: Back to square two. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(6), 212-219.

Why Students and Teachers Don't Reason Well . (n.d.). Foundation for Critical Thinking: Books, Conferences and Academic Resources for Educators and Students.. Retrieved May 1, 2010, from

Youngblood, N., & Beitz, J. (2001). Developing critical thinking with active learning strategies. Nurse Educator, 26(1), 39-42.

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